Friday, July 3, 2020

The Comparison of One Hundred Years of Solitude with Things Fall Apart - Literature Essay Samples

By Justin J.R.K. KirkeyAn Involved Essay: The Comparison of One Hundred Years of Solitude with Things Fall Apart Things and societies fall apart. Societies are born; they grow, thrive, decline, and finally perish. Their procession through these phases, though, can be very different. Gabriel Garcia Marquezs One Hundred Years of Solitude, a novel that tells the story of the rise and fall of the Buendia family, can be compared with Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart, a novel that tells the story of a man whose world slowly disintegrates around him. Both novels share the major overarching themes of social disintegration and change, but differ in the ways that the two described societies deal with that change. Other points of contract between the novels are the way they treat the roles of men and women in society, isolationism vs. internationalism, fate vs. free will, and supernatural events. In both novels, the reader experiences the progress and decline of a civilization. In Thin gs Fall Apart, reader learns early on about the status of the Igbo people of Umuofia, in Africa. Umuofia was feared by all its neighbors. It was powerful in war and in magic, and its priests and medicine men were feared in all the surrounding country (Achebe 11). The novel puts the notion of a thriving people who have relied on customs and traditions for as long as anyone can remember. This time is the civilizations high point. Okonkwo, the main character of Things Fall Apart, is a proud and prominent member of the Igbo community, an upholder of the way things are. A successful wrestler and husband to three wives, he always has an aura about him that suggests that he is born of a grade higher than the rest of society. However, as the title suggests, things fall apart. With the coming of the white man, Okonkwos world begins to slowly cave in around him. To some people in his tribe, this may seem like a great occurrence. Some might think that this is the natural progress of ci vilization, and depending upon differing viewpoints, it could be. In Things Fall Apart, though, the gradual coming of the white man signals the end of a time. It hearkens a changing world and the end of a way of life for the Igbo people, especially for Okonkwo, the upholder of its customs. The reader of One Hundred Years of Solitude experiences similar high and low points of civilization. In this novel, though, the path towards social disintegration is different. One Hundred Years of Solitude spans several generations of the Buendia family in Macondo, and as the novel progresses, one can notice that time seems to flow in a circular manner, repeating itself numerous times. This suggests that civilization is a continuing history, but that it simply circulates over and over again. Each new Buendia family member born over the course of more than a century receives a name that has been in the family in the past. The recycling of names reiterates the recycling of time. For example , the founding father of Macondo, Jose Arcadio Buendia, has two sons: Aureliano Buendia and Jose Arcadio. In the following generations to come, 21 more Aurelianos and five more Jose Arcadios appear. Those sharing a name inherit similar personality and physical traits as well, emphasizing the sense that all has occurred before. As one very prominent female character states, It is as if time were going around in circles and we have returned to the beginning (Fuentes). The way that the novel progresses this way, though, is ironic. Naturally, one would think that the Buendias should be progressing, but they are simply making the same mistakes over and over again. Their civilization stagnates, unable to follow the normal path of a society. Its a contrasting method of decline compared to that of the Igbo people in Things Fall Apart. Disintegration occurs gradually because of a defined stimulus, the coming of the white man, in Things Fall Apart. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, the reason for decline is more abstract. In the end, The town and the family are fated to die because they do not have what is required to continue. Their solitude, their commitment to withdrawal, fantasy, and subjective desires has doomed them (Johnston). The decline of both the Igbo people and the Buendia family are ultimately inevitable. Another major theme tackled in both Things Fall Apart and One Hundred Years of Solitude is that of the dueling ideas of an introverted society and an extroverted society. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, the founding father, Jose Arcadio Buendia, and the ensuing generations of Buendias, are constantly and fervently looking to connect to the outside world. They link themselves with sources of knowledge and progress, but usually come up short in their fanatical aspirations. The very first line of the book sums up the familys passion: Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendia was to remember that distant afternoon w hen his father took him to discover ice. (Garcia Marquez 1). Discovering ice this is a metaphor for all the Buendias represent. They want to progress, connect with the world, and gain knowledge through their extroverted explorations.. Okonkwo and many others in the Igbo community are basically the opposite of the Buendias and the people of Macondo. They are highly introverted, and want nothing to do with the outside world. All Okonkwo wanted was to return to the old ways, to get back to being the leader around Umuofia. The reason for the difference is understandable. The only connection the Igbo people had with the outside world was the white man, who did not bring inventions or knowledge but only uncertainty, fear, and ultimately the destruction of a dependable way of life, especially for Okonkwo. Another issue that the two novels address in different ways is the way that society treats men and women differently. In Things Fall Apart, women are in absolute subordination to m en. Okonkwo, the great warrior, has three wives, and they all fear him in some way or another. This is typical of Igbo society. Men were considered superior, and were responsible for hunting and acquiring of food. Women cared for children and took care of less important things. An aura surrounds the Igbo women that suggests they are more than their society labels them, but they cannot overcome that barrier and ultimately play insignificant roles in society. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, on the other hand, the roles of men are women are quite different. Macondo is a much more egalitarian society than that of the Igbo people. Men and women are treated in a fairly similar way to that of modern democratic societies. Macondos slight tendency towards patriarchy is almost negated by the important role that women play. The men of the Buendia family are, as stated before, very passionate about their thirst for knowledge and progress, and often end up locking themselves up for long spans of time. When this happens, the women of the household, especially the motherly Ursula, have to pick up the slack, and they always do. They also treat extraordinary and supernatural events in a casual, almost dull manner, contrasting with the mens extreme reactions. They put men in their place, bringing down to earth their fantastic ideas and checking their megalomaniacal aspirations. The way that Ursula and many of the other women in One Hundred Years of Solitude dampen the emergence of the fantastic into the story is different than that of how the Igbo people treat the supernatural in Things Fall Apart. In the latter novel there is none of the magical realism that characterizes Garcia Marquezs tendency to mix fantasy and reality. Instead, the Igbo people have incorporated the seemingly supernatural into daily life (Epstein). The egwugwu, a group of masqueraders from the village, dressed up in ornate garments, impersonate the ancestral spirits of Umuofia. The Igbo peop le fear the unknown, and the egwugwu are their method of dampening that unknown, much as Ursula does. Similarly, the Igbo people relieve their fear of theSupernatural by sectioning off an evil forest thought to be full of demons and malignant spirits. They do not confront the unknown, but instead find a distinct and practical way to deal with it. The dueling themes of fate versus free will also play major roles in Things Fall Apart and One Hundred Years of Solitude. In both novels, fate always seems to have a cruel advantage over the characters. Throughout Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo sometimes blames his chi, or personal god, for his newly ill-fated destiny. As a young man, he was always successful and strong. When he became older, hough, things did not generally go his way. When his gun accidentally exploded and killed a prominent son of a late tribal leader, the town was outraged and exiled him. In exile, only hard work and free will ensured Okonkwos success. Fate was no lon ger sufficient for his success. One Hundred Years of Solitude seems doomed from the beginning, despite resistance by mans will. Although Jose Arcadio Buendia founded Macondo, nature is inevitably taking it back. He built the village in the jungle, which appears throughout the novel as almost an ethereal being watching over feeble-minded humans. It symbolizes the resistance of nature mans free will and attempts to order the universe (Ortega). For instance, nature seems to punish the village after an evil banana company arrives. Five years of rain destroys much of the village, and the remaining two Buendias resort to ancestral, primal desires. The pressures of nature leave the Buendias disoriented and ultimately destined to perish (Gullon). No matter what unique path a society follows in the phases of life, it must perish in the end. In Things Fall Apart, the coming of the white man stimulated the decline of Igbo society. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, prophesied fate and the o ver-powering will of nature contributed to societal decline. From these rich, detailed novels the reader emerges all too aware of how many ways there are for a society to disintegrate.BibliographyAchebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. 1959. New York: Anchor Books, 1994. Borinsky, Alicia. Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 1992. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 113. Gale. 168-82. Student Resource Center Bronze. Thomson Gale. 24 Apr. 2005 . Enright, D.J. Larger than Death. Rev. of One Hundred Years of Solitude. The Listener 84.2160 (1970): 252. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 68. Detroit: Gale, 1991. 143. Epstein, Joseph. How Good is Gabriel Garcia Marquez? Commentary 75.5 (May 1983): 59-65. Student Resource Center Bronze. Thomson Gale. 24 Apr. 2005 . Fuentes, Carlos. Untitled. Modern Latin American Literature: Volume 1 A-L. Comp. David William Foster and Virginia Ramos Foster. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1975. 380-81. Gullon, Ricardo. Gabriel Garcia Marquez an d the Lost Art of Storytelling. Critical Essays on Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Ed. George R. McMurray. 1987. 129-40. Student Resource Center Bronze. Thomson Gale. 23 Apr. 2005 . -. Untitled. Modern Latin American Literature: Volume 1 A-L. Comp. David William Foster and Virginia Ramos Foster. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1975. 383. Johnston, Ian. On Marquezs One Hundred Years of Solitude. Liberal Studies 402. Malaspina University-College. 28 Mar. 1995. 11 Apr. 2000. Malaspina University-College. 23 Apr. 2005 . Leonard, John. Myth Is Alive in Latin America. Rev. of One Hundred Years of Solitude. New York Times 3 Mar. 1970: 39. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 68. Detroit: Gale, 1991. 140-41. Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. Interview with Rita Guibert. Contemporary Literary Criticism: Volume 68. 971. Detroit: Gale, 1991. 144. -. One Hundred Years of Solitude. 1967. Trans. Gregory Rabassa. New York: Avon Books, 1971. Ortega, Julio. Untitled. 1969. Modern Latin American Li terature: Volume 1 A-L. Comp. David William Foster and Virginia Ramos Foster. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1975. 381. Richardson, Jack. Master Builder. Rev. of One Hundred Years of Solitude. The New York Review of Books XIV.6 (1970): 3-4. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 68. Detroit: Gale, 1991. 143.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Biology Short Answer - 717 Words

Reflection Essay 1- Tree Huggers 1. Summary of the Article: The Articles discussed the issue of lianas’ massive overgrown over the trees in Amazon forests. There are both good news and bad news about it: the good news is that: the lianas provide food and water for animals passing the forest during the dry season,when water and food are relatively hard to find for animals. (Fountain,A Tree Hugger,2011). The bad news, however, is that the stems of the vines have grabbed soil nutrients,water and light away from the trees, which are essential for trees to grow and survive.(Fountain,A Tree Hugger,2011)Besides, the lianas have caused death to trees because as they grow surrounding the trees, they get more weight and eventually they become†¦show more content†¦The forest is actually the main player for this carbon sink process, as the forest include a huge amount of trees. When the leaves absorb the carbon dioxide by photo synthesis, the carbon is stored in the tree as energy, thus reducing the CO2 level in the environment.Therefore the forest is the big garage for storing carbon and reduce CO2. When the forest is destructed,, there will be less trees cleaning the CO2 in the atmosphere through the process of separating the carbon,storing energy and release oxygen, so not only is the oxygen level get reduced, but CO2 level rises as well, as they can’t be get rid of. The CO2 is the main one that is responsible for green-house effect, thus destructing the forest harms our environment and the whole planet’s welfare. Sources Cited: Carbon Sink, Cambridge Dictionaries Online 3. The most interesting thing in the article is the way that the lianas survive and gain nutrients. As mentioned in the article, the lianas actually depend somewhat on the tree to survive, as it can’t stand and grow from the ground by themselves,and need the trees’ trunks to support them to go all the way to the top and gain more sunlight and grow.(Fountain,A Tree Hugger,2011) They depend on trees, yet theyShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Education780 Words   |  4 Pagesthe person has what he/she has today. Who am I? Why am I here? Who are these people? These types of questions that come to my mind. There are a lot of random questions that are similar to these and people might think deeply and wondering for answers. One of the things that makes the person unique is having a humanity. A humanity that represents the heart, peace, care, help, and love. A human is a curious person who wants to know more and more. 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Studying biology provides intriguing glimpses into God’s creation and its processesRead MoreEvolution : A Forced Or Natural Process1200 Words   |  5 Pagestype of evolution is called â€Å"Evolutionary developmental biology† (Also known as â€Å"Evolution of Development†). Evolutionary developmental biology, â€Å"evo-devo† for short, is the expansion of Neo-Darwinist ideas of human evolution. Evolutionary developmental biology could be a breakthrough in the slow, unpromising form of natural selection; such technolog y could be the answer to human’s cries for species superiority. Evolutionary developmental biology will provide scientist with the means to change the genetics

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

RN to BSN Degree Labor and Delivery Nurses Care for Women, Families, and Newborns 2019

Labor and delivery nurses are one of the few groups of nurses that remain primarily in the hospital setting. Whereas many nursing disciplines are shifting out into to the community, labor and delivery nurses typically work in hospitals, clinics, and birthing centers. Nurses who have earned an RN to BSN degree are able to enter the field of labor and delivery to care for women and families throughout the birthing process. What is a Labor and Delivery Nurse? A graduate with an RN to BSN degree who chooses to work as a labor and delivery nurse cares for women who are having pregnancy complications, are in labor, or who have recently delivered. They also provide care for newborns and, along with other health care professionals, create a plan of care for the mother and her baby. Some labor and delivery nurses may work in the nursery or with the physician during a cesarean section. .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d:active, .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u595826cf796794d03fdf80f9fa6c1a4d:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ 10 Job Tips for New GradsRequired Education to Become a Labor and Delivery Nurse Labor and delivery nurses must be licensed as Registered Nurses within the U.S. through a hospital diploma, associate degree, or RN to BSN degree. Many employers prefer to hire labor and delivery nurses who have earned a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) and may require two years of prior medical-surgical experience. Labor and delivery nurses must also be certified in neonatal resuscitation and fetal monitoring. RN to BSN degree graduates who choose to work in labor and delivery nursing must possess good communication skills in order to work effectively with patients, families, and other health care professionals. They must also be able to prioritize patient needs and work effectively in a fast-paced environment. Related ArticlesBSN Degree Neonatal Nurses Care for Newborns with Special NeedsLPN RN Online Program Combine Business and Nursing for Advanced Career OpportunitiesHealth Care Employment OpportunitiesAccelerated BSN Program Forensic Geriatric Nurses Investigate Cases of Elder AbuseBSN Top 5 Reasons to Earn a Bachelor of Science in NursingA Nursing Shortage .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97 { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97:active, .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:no ne; } .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97 { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97 .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97 .postTitle { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u010421f553aeec5a361a40d730aa0a97:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Managers and Management Training Through Example

Friday, May 15, 2020

Eastern North American Neolithic

Archaeological evidence shows that eastern North America (often abbreviated ENA) was a separate place of origin for the invention of agriculture. The earliest evidence of low-level food production in ENA begins between about 4000 and 3500 years ago, during the period known as the Late Archaic. People entering the Americas brought with them two domesticates: the dog and the bottle gourd. Domestication of new plants in ENA began with the squash Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera, domesticated ~4000 years ago by Archaic hunter-gatherer-fishers, probably for its use (like the bottle gourd) as a container and fishnet float. Seeds of this squash are edible, but the rind is quite bitter. Read more about Cucurbita pepoRead more about the American Archaic Food Crops in Eastern North America The first food crops domesticated by the Archaic hunter-gatherers were oily and starchy seeds, most of which are considered weeds today. Iva annua (known as marshelder or sumpweed) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) were domesticated in ENA by about 3500 years ago, for their oil-rich seeds. Read more about sunflower domestication Chenopodium berlandieri (chenopod or goosefoot) is reckoned to have been domesticated in Eastern North America by ~3000 BP, based on its thinner seed coats. By 2000 years ago, Polygonum erectum (knotweed), Phalaris caroliniana (maygrass), and Hordeum pusillum (little barley), Amaranthus hypochondriacus (pigweed or amaranth) and perhaps Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed), were likely cultivated by Archaic hunter-gatherers; but scholars are somewhat divided as to whether they were domesticated or not. Wild rice (Zizania palustris) and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) were exploited but apparently not domsticated prehistorically. Read more about chenopodium Cultivating Seed Plants Archaeologists believe that seed plants may have been cultivated by collecting the seeds and using the maslin technique, that is to say, by storing the seeds and mixing them together before broadcasting them onto a suitable patch of ground, such as a floodplain terrace. Maygrass and little barley ripen in spring; chenopodium and knotweed ripen in fall. By mixing these seeds together and sprinkling them on fertile ground, the farmer would have a patch where seeds could reliably be harvested for three seasons. The domestication would have occurred when the cultivators began selecting the chenopodium seeds with the thinnest seed covers to save and replant. By the Middle Woodland period, domesticated crops such as maize (Zea mays) (~800-900 AD) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (~1200 AD) arrived in ENA from their central American homelands  and were integrated into what archaeologists have termed the Eastern Agricultural Complex. These crops would have been planted in large separate fields or intercropped, as part of the three sisters or mixed cropping agricultural technique. Read more about maizeRead more about the Three SistersRead more about the ​Eastern Agricultural Complex Important ENA Archaeological Sites Kentucky: Newt Kash, Cloudsplitter, Salts CaveAlabama: Russell CaveIllinois: Riverton, American Bottom sitesMissouri: Gypsy JointOhio: Ash CaveArkansas: Edens Bluff, Whitney Bluff, Holman ShelterMississippi: Natchez Sources Fritz GJ. 1984. Identification of Cultigen Amaranth and Chenopod from Rockshelter Sites in Northwest Arkansas. American Antiquity 49(3):558-572. Fritz, Gayle J. Multiple pathways to farming in precontact eastern North America. Journal of World Prehistory, Volume 4, Issue 4, December 1990. Gremillion KJ. 2004. Seed Processing and the Origins of Food Production in Eastern North America. American Antiquity 69(2):215-234. Pickersgill B. 2007. Domestication of Plants in the Americas: Insights from Mendelian and Molecular Genetics. Annals of Botany 100(5):925-940. Open Access. Price TD. 2009. Ancient farming in eastern North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(16):6427-6428. Scarry, C. Margaret. Crop Husbandry Practices in North America’s Eastern Woodlands. Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, SpringerLink. Smith BD. 2007. Niche construction and the behavioral context of plant and animal domestication. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 16(5):188-199. Smith BD, and Yarnell RA. 2009. Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex in eastern North America at 3800 B.P. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(16):561–6566.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim offered differing...

Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim offered differing perspectives on the role of religion. Choose the theorist whose insights you prefer and outline how they perceived religion operating socially. Discuss why you chose your preferred theorists views over the others. Marx, Durkheim and Weber each had different sociological views of the role and function of Religion. My preferred theorists view’s on Religion is Karl Marx’s as I feel his ideas are more relevant to what Religion actually is. And I have chosen Marx’s theory on Religion as I feel that it is the most similar to my own views on the subject. His views are more interesting to me as I don’t practise any Religion and his views expand on†¦show more content†¦Durkheim’s theories make sense and are for me a nice and fluffy way of looking at Religion, but I have a feeling that if he were to see the route Religion has gone down in modern society would he still feel the same about the majority of Religions, for example the scandal’s in the Catholic church over the past forty years that are only really surfacing now. And Weber’s thoughts were more rational as that what was expected of people was to keep their heads down and they would even tually be rewarded with Heaven. Even if in today’s society more numbers are in decline of practicing religion, Marx’s views on the subject are definitely the most valid. There expectations of people may not be as extreme as they were back in the 1800’s of their followers as they are now, but of the three, Marx’s views are the most realistic of what Religion truly is. His ability to see what religion was actually doing to people’s lives back then is remarkable and for his words to still have such relevance now in modern society shows that he was extremely perceptive of society. Marxism also assumes that Religion will eventually disappear and for someone to envisage that from over one hundred years ago is clearly someone who knew what they were talking about. And that is why I chose Marx. Bibliography. MacDonald.,B (2006) An Introduction to Sociology in Ireland, 2nd Edition, Dublin, Gill

Emotional Experiences in Tim O´Brien´s The Things They...

Most stories about war show the glory of war and heroism of soldiers. According to OED, war is â€Å"a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or different groups within a nation or state†. But, what’s the definition about the stage of confusions in the soldier’s mind? A conflict between two nations or states can be resolved in a particular amount of time but can an experience from a person’s mind can ever be forgotten, can a person ever be able to resolve his own conflict: his fight with his emotions, changes, and his own mind? Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried is a powerful combination of fact and fiction; through description and imagination, O’Brien allows the reader to feel a soldiers hardships in the war and†¦show more content†¦Can a change that was caused by a particular experience be described from a particular perspective? Can a horrible truth be expressed in words how it felt as a feeling? Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried, a collection of stories about his service in the Vietnam War, raises exactly such questions, and in remembering, O’Brien endeavors to answer them for himself. The short story â€Å"Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong,† is a tale of the horrors of war, and how quickly violent experiences can change one from civilized gentle to uncivilized inhumane who enjoys killing others. The story tells about an ideal American young girl’s transformation into a savage, who becomes emotionless while visiting her boyfriend, a soldier, in Vietnam. This story shows that a war can bring up the savage characteristics within human beings, whether male or female. This is shown through the development of Mary Anne. Initially she was amiable and innocent, but she rapidly became more disconnected to society a trained killer. Her story shows the mental transference of humans at war, and how they can be converted from sympathetic people into unsocial, who is capable of performing the most dreadful acts. O’Brien uses irony to convey the bizarre aspect of the story, keeping the purpose of his true-warShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie The Things They Carried 1734 Words   |  7 PagesScenario - Vietnam War The Things They Carried, is a novel based on the Vietnam War, and the book reveals the truth of the war as the author remembers the war after twenty one years and snows his guilt and emotions for the war. The Things They Carried, belongs high on the list of the best fiction about any war... crystallizes the Vietnam experiences for everyone and exposes the nature of all war stories.( New York Times, Book of the Century). 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Taoism and Yang free essay sample

The later dates of the Eastern Zhou time period marked a great change in the social and political statuses in ancient China. Literacy rates were increasing, upper class individuals and family members were powering over others, and schooling gave people a leading advantage. Both intellectual and moral thoughts were taking over and with this new idea, came a new philosophy. There existed many spiritual thinkers dating way back, however, to this day, the date that Taoism formed is still unknown, a similar case with many other ancient religions. â€Å"Tao† is a term in Chinese, meaning â€Å"way† or â€Å"path† and referring to the way to live one’s life (Hardy,2002). Originally, the main concern was guiding individuals with an appropriate behavior for leading and governing others, as well as the balance of harmony between nature and humanity. Although no main authoritative figure represents this religion, the headquarter is situated in the White Cloud Temple, in Beijing, where priests can learn and train (Hardy, 2002). Taoism, also currently known as Daoism, is the Chinese traditional religion and philosophy that believes in the balance of yin and yang. Ying and Yang are opposites, and the Ying Yang philosophy explains that nothing is purely one way. There is always good for every evil and evil for every good, yet even though they are so contrasting, one cannot thrive without the other, there needs to be a balance between both. This balance, a union of opposites, represents harmony and peace on earth. Ying and Yang goes by the definition â€Å"the nature of change, balanced as two halves of a whole†, a â€Å"duality forming a whole† (Littlejohn, 2009). This symbol hold a lot of meaning to Taoist as it signifies the unity of opposites, the unity of Tao. The black and white color in the Yin and Yang symbol represents the Yin-gi and Yang-gi, the female and male energies that work together to balance and manifest the world (Wang, 2012). The smaller circles in the symbol represents the change and the black and white opposite in the world, reminding the worshippers of how opposites must balance one another in order to achieve balance between the two. Yin and Yang also represent the unity of the 5 elements; fire (greater Yang), wood (lesser Yang), water (greater Yin), metal (lesser Yin) and earth (central) which together form the elements that comprise everything in our world (Wang, 2012). Completely polar opposites can be seen in everyday: night and day, male and female, beautiful and ugly, high and low; everything has its opposite, and without it, there would be an imbalance in the world. Nevertheless, there will always be a contrasting opinion as to what is right compared to what is wrong, as one belief cannot be shared universally (Hardy, 2002). Yin nor Yang is absolute, but both together can form a whole. There would be an imbalance in the world if death rates did not equal birth rates. Yin and Yang can also become each other even though they are opposites, as they need to support each other to create balance. Taoists believe that there must be an alignment of harmony between human nature and the rest of nature. They believe that one must experience a long and healthy life through practice and perfection of the practice so that self-cultivation is at its peak and everyone can thrive (Littlejohn, 2009). Taoist believe that everything in the world is in a constant cycle. If humans do not follow the natural path, â€Å"tao†, then unhealthy misfortune and destruction will cloud them and their families (Hardy, 2002). A strong opposition to punishment is believed, as it does not allow for the natural method of spontaneous behavior and rather a force of good behavior upon an individual. Ruling and governing others is a principal theme in Taoism as it encourages followers to model the appropriate behavior. Taoism focuses on ones flow with nature through activities such as meditation with themes such as detachment from desires, naturalness , and stress free activities such as tai chi. Taoism emphasizes the practice on living in harmony through daily life and ritual activities. Taoist is a polytheistic religion and their gods are not personified. They believe that no god can help solve problems in life but that peace can only be solved by personal meditation and observation (Littlejohn, 2009). People have to work in harmony and help each other to keep balance in the world and to increase the well being of humankind. Unlike other religions, there is no figure to look upon and worship but to solely rely on one another. Taoist people do not have a particular ritualized way to worship in their everyday life, but the main goal of the laypeople is to achieve harmony with the Tao in their day-to-day lives. They believe in doing this through physical practices, which are made to transform a person mentally and physically into a more harmonious state, a balance between Yin and Yang. One way the Taoist attempt to reach harmony is through alchemy (BBC, 2009). Merriam-Webster describes alchemy as, â€Å"a power or process of transforming something common into something special†. The Taoists sought to do this in two separate ways; the first is through Wai-Dan, external alchemy, which was used in an older period. At this time, the alchemists were looking for an elixir to turn cheap metal into gold. They then looked for a way to turn humans into immortals. This creation involved various combinations of ingredients by heating, grinding, and mixing together along with other rituals. This is called external alchemy because they add an external force to the body with the hopes of purification (BBC, 2009). The second type of alchemy is Nei-Dun, interior alchemy. This is a work of the self without the use of chemicals to transform the elements of the body into purer forms, promoting the energy of life. This is done through meditation and martial arts (BBC, 2009). Taoists attempted to use both of these forces to transform human beings into a more natural state and to rid their body of the bad within, producing only the good and allowing them to reach purification and through that, the Tao. Taoists also believe that sexual energy has the ability to enhance their lives. They have developed certain techniques to increase a person’s sexual energy and to retain it. It is said that the men should refrain from ejaculating during sexual activity, to conserver the energy (BBC, 2009). As for women, there are too different views. The first view suggests that women should also abstain from reaching orgasm to conserve energy, yet the second view states that female orgasm leads to a growth in both male and female sexual energy. This idea suggested that men should have multiple sexual partners in order to gain access to the female release of beneficial sexual energy (BBC, 2009). The Taoist people see sexuality as a form of attaining purification and positive energy, like that of alchemy, they believe it to help them reach a state of harmony between Yin and Yang. Taoist people also practice purity through meditation, breathing, energy flow and martial arts. The texts teach the worshipers the importance of a pure body to ensure spiritual health. To remain pure, the people have a special diet, which they abstain from alcohol, meat, beans, and grains, all of which can be toxic to the body. Taoists also avoid being greedy, lustful, prideful, and dishonest, which also causes conflict within the body (BBC, 2009). To avoid these impurities, Taoists practice meditation. This practice is a major custom for the people because it creates mental stillness and enhances mindfulness. This allows the mental space to focus on directly knowing the Tao (BBC, 2009). Another practice is breathing, which is the easiest professed form of Ch’i. There are many breathing exercises the Taoists use, which are called Qui Gong, as it is the easiest way to relax the body. Taoists also practice energy flow, which is the flow of life energy, Ch’i, in the body. It can be enhanced, harmonized, and regulated by various forms of exercise and meditation, like acupuncture and Tai Chi (BBC, 2009). All of these techniques are used on a daily basis to allow for spiritual growth and a long life. It is through this way of life that the Taoists attempt to develop their bodies to the primordial level of energy, which is the state of the body at the beginning of creation (Kohn, 2009). By creating bodies that mimic that of the bodies at first creation, the Taoist are reaching a raw level of purity, bringing them that much closer to harmony and balance. Taoists also practice recitation of passages from the Tao Te Ching, which is their guide to living a spiritual and ethical life. This is a vital expression of devotion and also a way to attain spiritual growth. They believe that the texts have healing powers along with the ability to banish evil spirits, and bring good luck to those who recite it. To the Celestial Masters Group, it is a source of philosophical wisdom. It is also said to have the ability to prolong life and bring human beings to complete unity with Tao (BBC, 2009). The Taoists use this recitation to create a balance within themselves bringing them closer to that of the natural realm. The Taoists conduct rituals that bring order and harmony to the cosmos – the world of nature, human society, and the inner world of human individuals. The details of rituals are highly complex and technical and they are left to the Taoshi, which are priests. These rituals mostly involve chanting, playing instruments, and dancing (BBC, 2009). Jiao, which means offering of sacrifice, is performed in communities to confirm the relationship between the community and its deity (Andersen, 2008). In this case, every household in the village brings an offering for the local deity, at that point, a Taoshi dedicates the offerings in the name of the families, they perform a ritual to restore order to the universe and then ask the gods to bring peace and prosperity to the village (BBC, 2009). The Taoists also use temple rituals to regulate Chi and balance the flow of Yin and Yang for individuals and also the wider community. In the temple they pray to the Taoists deities for strength, help and anything they think the deity would be able to aid them with. They meditate in the temple because it is a place of peace and there is a greater chance of harmony within the body in a place of balance. They also worship on talismans because they are objects of good luck. Talismans are strips of paper with words of power and religious symbols written on them by Taoshi. They are said to focus kind spiritual energies to purify, heal the sick, and to drive away demons. They also use the temple to recite and chant prayers and texts to also purify their minds and bodies (BBC, 2009). The Taoists use the temple to conduct these rituals, as it is a place of balance and harmony, filled with aspects of the Tao. Taoism is a religion based on healing methods that seek to re-establish the original wholeness of human nature (Girardot, 2009), whether through their rituals or their everyday activities, Taoist people attempt to balance out the Yin and Yang in their lives. They believe that a healthy human life could only be established with accordance to the Tao, by living naturally and peacefully. Their main goals in life are compassion, moderation and humility, which all-lead back to the Tao. To Taoists, the Yin and Yang are most important in everything they do. When both Yin and Yang are present and equally balanced, everything is calm. Because of this, Taoist people attempt to create harmony in their lives creating a closer gap to the Tao. The Taoist religion is a constant battle between balances of those that are opposing each other to produce a state of constant harmony and union between opposites. By achieving this balance the worshippers will begin to live their lives in accordance of the Tao and live in peaceful life.